Lack of Transparency and Freedom of Information in Pakistan: An analysis of government’s functioning and realistic policy options for reform
1.1. Problem statement;
1.3. Review of literature;
1.4. Research questions;
1.6. Structure of the paper.
2. Legal and Institutional Framework for Transparency and Access to Information
2.1. Colonial Legacy (until 1947)
2.2. Legal and Institutional Situation (1947-1990);
2.3. Contemporary Developments and Trends (1990-2005);
2.4. Nature and Direction of Change (analysis of supportive/inhibitive factors).
3. State of Transparency and Access to Information
3.1. Proactive disclosure;
3.2. Access to information;
3.3. Limitations and problems confronted by departments; and
3.4. Limitations and problems faced by civil society groups and communities.
4. Implications of Lack of Transparency and Access to Informarion
4.1. Inefficiencies and corruption;
4.2. Non-conducive environment for citizens’ participation;
4.3. Political development (e.g. uninformed electoral choices; poor performance of legislators in executive oversight);
4.4. Economic development (e.g. constraints for investors)
5. Understanding Recent Policy Initiatives for Reform
5.1. Demand/ pressures for reform (e.g. donors, civil society);
5.2. Resistance to change (e.g. vast sections of establishment);
5.3. Nature and process of policy initiatives in the given political-institutional environment;
5.4. Gaps and problems in policy making process.
6. Implementation and Impact of Recent Reform Initiatives
6.1. Increased Proactive Disclosure;
6.2. Greater Media Freedom;
6.3. Article 137 (i.e. on ’Transparency’) in Local Government Ordinance 2001;
6.4. Freedom of Information Ordinance 2002;
6.5. Rules for Freedom of Information Ordinance 2002;
6.6. Other measures promoting transparency.