roots of the women’s activism
the last some years much has been written about the status of women in
Kazakhstan, to be more precise, about how it has worsened because of
economic situation created by the collapse of the Soviet system.
I remember well when women had various privileges related to childbirth. These rights allowed for baby care for certain period of time, and women did not even reflect about the way the State protected the reproductive rights of women and solved the demographic problems. Allocation of a certain number of seats for women in the Supreme Soviets of the USSR and Union Republics created an outward show of equivalent participation of women in the State management. The activity of women-leaders in places of business – in district committees and city committees of the Party, as well as in executive committees - was quite noticeable. Although they did not have the top positions in the party’s ranks, women worked with the youth, children, and old people. And to me, still a child then, it seemed that all the authority came from the hands of these tirelessly active, women workers.
has changed since those days. Now I look back and wonder if we really
were equal, or we simply were satisfied with our status. I also wonder
how much we have lost by giving our status to men without a struggle.
Yet, women and men currently face common difficulties dealing with the
new market conditions. So, the question is should we strive for
equality, or should cry about the losses of social protection? For
women, the answer is obvious because they, in fact, very often can deal
with the market economy better than the men can.
it is necessary to think in completely different terms. When women were
deprived of the childcare system for their children and the right to a
free education, they stood up staunchly to protect their children from
the approach of illiteracy and poverty. They did this by going to work
in the new marketplace economy. So, former teachers, scientists,
doctors, engineers now go to the markets of cities and villages with
cheap goods procured in Poland, China, Turkey, Southern Korea, and
India. By selling these imported goods, women can support not only their
families but also pay for their children’s education, which has became
rather expensive under the present conditions. The statistics speak of
the fact that women comprise up to 80 % of the people selling goods in
the markets of Kazakhstan. Among this category of businesswomen, 36 %
are the women who have the highest educational background .
women assimilated into the new field of entrepreneurship very quickly.
However, the activity, while relatively simple, requires huge amounts of
time and becomes thus an all-absorbing activity. Thanks to having
received a good education, the women know how to battle on two fronts
every day – in and out of home. However, not having significant means
and access to cheap advantageous credit, women have been limited to
acting as small business entrepreneurs. This can ensure a livelihood for
their families, but leaves nothing for their professional and cultural
development, for leisure, or for hobbies.
these problems are well described in modern feminist literature of the
countries with transition economics, and there is no need to repeat the
truisms. Serious investigators have published numerous scientific
articles and monographs about this phenomenon giving an evaluation of
the impact of the economic reforms on women. Perhaps, in Kazakhstan, the
greatest quantity of publications on gender themes is devoted to the
problem of female unemployment and the reasons that caused it.
chairman of the Association of the Sociologists and Politologists of
Almaty Dr. Bahytzhamal Bekturganova in her manuscript “Sociology of
Women: Kazakhstan 1995-1998” comes to the following conclusions:
conditions of recession, gender differences have not been taken into
account: it is difficult for all of us to have to face the problem of
how to survive. Not only is the life of women similar to the life of
men, their civil status has been equalized. “Equality” of genders
has become a new, secret form of discrimination against women, which
clearly is exhibited in the labor market. The men of Kazakhstan,
following the example of their brothers who conquered the Wild West,
make haste to occupy the new advantageous positions, and leaving for
women less advantageous positions. In the labor market, and in the
political realm, women have had to let men get ahead and be content with
auxiliary spheres of activity. This
means, that the political equality of men and women receives democratic
treatment only on words. In fact, the archaic principles from the times
of batyrs and barymty1
actions have been used to legalize “The right of the strong”. The
fruits of female emancipation turned out to be beyond the power of
women. What they opposed in the past - violence and oppression – they
are now subjected to. The difference is only to that if earlier they
were compelled to obey to men, now they voluntarily surrender to fate
majority of the Kazakhstan women live in captivity of false stereotypes,
determined by such concepts as “the small world”, “small life”,
and many women are not even aware of the way their lives are limited.
The scale of female interests in most cases is narrowed to the world of
a home kitchen, which removes women from the public sphere. Therefore,
more often women appear in the role of indirect observers indifferently
contemplating the events of the political life from the windows of their
kitchens. If the bearers of the problems themselves are indifferent to
the policy, then accordingly, the policy is impenetrable for women’s
problems. The policy reacts only to those needs that publicly declare
themselves. Therefore, not accidentally, of women’s problems in our
country are lined up in a long queue of expectations waiting a solution.
In order to be heard, however, they must first be given a voice. .
comment, I would say, is not needed.
our country, women tentatively began to discuss women’s issues after
the Beijing Conference in 1995. Since then, women have become more vocal
and more able to present their concerns through various publications.
Recently, a strong women’s movement has appeared along with scientific
literature on women’s issues. Under the influence of the western
feminist movement, which has come to the country with international
donor agencies, we now have a new research from scientists who are
showing interest in gender research, and they have already defended
their first doctoral theses on this theme.
Very soon it will be possible to speak about the Kazakhstan school of
gender studies and its own contributions to the theory of women’s
studies and development of solutions for women’s problems. We have all
the necessary preconditions for it. Meanwhile, it is possible only again
to state the words of above-mentioned Dr.Bekturganova:
is it in Kazakhstan, where it is impossible to call the position of
women in any way fair and happy, we have no gender research and gender
educational programs, while in developed countries, where the position
of women is much strong, they have academic base that studies women’s
status of gender studies
the developed democratic countries of Northern America, Central, and
East Europe the centers of gender studies have existed since the early
1980s. At first they were opened as independent centers, and they then
were integrated in universities and colleges, as departments or
faculties on women’s studies. The majority of these structures, which
started from conducting women’s research gradually, evolved to include
many aspects of social sciences. They have given a scientific definition
to gender relations as the necessary category in the analysis of social
relations, introduced gender in the analysis of problems of development,
and worked out of the strategies of sustainable development.
Asian countries possess not a smaller scientific potential for reaching
the standards of the western gender research. At various periods of
development, the essential research was conducted, resulting in various
books, magazines, articles devoted to "women’s issues". All
of them require sorting and systematization by theme groups. For
example, the women’s non-governmental agencies in cooperation with a
number of independent researchers and the Gender in Development Bureau
have published the first Report on the Status of Women in Kazakhstan,
Association of the Sociologists and Politologists of Almaty, the
Institute of Kazakhstan Development, and the National Statistical Agency
have prepared a number of sociological and statistical reviews on
specific gender issues, mainly on the subject of women and the reform.
In the summer of 1997, the former Council on Family, Women and the
Demographic Policy under the President of the RK conducted the first
scientific conference in Kazakhstan on gender studies, which also has
highlighted the strengths and weaknesses of the gender science in the
to words of Dr. Alma Abikenova, Professor of the Karaganda State
activity of the UN office in Kazakhstan has become an intensifying
factor of introduction of the gender theory in the sphere of
intellectual activity and public consciousness of the Republic. The
annual reports of the UNDP on Human Development (which since 1995
include the gender factor), the UN Conventions on women's rights
advocacy, the documents of the international women’s movements, and
other materials dealing with the ideas of a social-sexual symmetry, have
become the property of the intellectual establishment and the public
associations of the Republic. The
issues of the National Human Development Reports have served as the
further stimulus for a turn to the gender theory implemented under the
support of the UN Development Program (since 1995). Scientists from the
leading analytical, research institutions have used gender analysis for
evaluating and studying a wide range of social problems and policy.
Establishment of the Gender in Development Bureau in 1996 became a
catalytic force for integrating gender to social theory and practice.
These examples have shown the existing capabilities and a scientific
base for creation of the Center of Gender Studies in Kazakhstan.
order to conduct serious scientific research in the area of gender
relations, we need to develop practical recommendations for gender
sensitivity of the national policy. Also we need to introduce gender
perspectives in the legislative acts on elimination of a gender
inequality and discrimination, by preparing experts in the area of
gender research. Thus, we need a scientific base in the form of the
Center on Gender Studies.
time has come for an actual institutional registration of gender
research. And it is necessary to begin with preparation of experts in
the area of the gender methodology. Because of the lack of scientists
interested in gender issues, adequate integration of gender theory in
the intellectual sphere of the Kazakhstan society is impossible .
to the efforts of the UNDP Regional Gender Program, women’s NGOs, and
the Gender in Development Bureau the Center of Gender Studies was
created in 1998. But the Center is still powerless and small. However,
gradually it is becoming the core of the school that is being organized
on gender research in Kazakhstan. At present, its main achievement has
become the development of the interdisciplinary curricula on gender
theory. The course was successfully introduced in the Almaty State
University in 1999.
on this successful introduction of gender studies at one of the largest
universities in the country, we can anticipate that the other higher
educational institutions in the Republic will introduce similar
programs. This year we will see how many higher educational institutions
in the Republic will create such a program and what the response of the
broad public is to this innovation.
Institute of Philosophy at the National Academy of Sciences is setting
up a project, with the financial support of the UNDP, that is developing
and publishing an introductory course on the gender theory. This will
serve as the manual for the students of the higher educational
institutions of the country. A set of brochures on various “gender”
themes in Kazakhstan and methods of teaching of this course will
supplement the manual.
all preconditions for the introduction of research on gender issues in
Kazakhstan have been created. It is necessary to observe how will this
process develop further, how it will take root in our cross-cultural
country, and what polemics will it initiate in the scientific circles.
Any discussion will be only to the benefit, as it will show that society
is not indifferent to the existing problems of gender issues.
initiation of the women’s movement in Kazakhstan has helped people to
understand the necessity of overcoming gender stereotypes and
patriarchal relationships in the society in many ways. It is difficult
for the older generation to acquire new points of view. Sometimes we
even here periodic calls for prohibition of abortion or the
re-introduction of the polygamy in accordance with the archaic customs.
But the new generation generally is free from conventional dogmas and is
capable of accepting more progressive ideas. Now it is important to
prove necessity of women’s rights advocacy for a harmonic, sustainable
development of the society.
of women’s activism
to the Report on the Status of Women in Kazakhstan, 1997:
upsurge in the activity of women’s organizations took place at the end
of the 1980s and the beginning 1990s, as a result of the proclamation of
the Law on Public Associations. The first wave of women’s NGOs lacked
coordination, with leaders who had begun their activity by drawing
attention to women’s issues (women’s rights, women’s status in the
transition period, involvement of women in enterprise). This was the
period in which independent actions were first strengthen by
team-building, establishment of contacts with similar organizations in
the region, with international foundations, and state structures. In
1995-1996, the situation as a whole in the Republic called for change in
the activity of women’s organizations, toward social programs, and
joining the women’s organizations were groups with a social aim,
working in the realms of the family, disabled children, the lonely
elderly, and other social vulnerable groups. There are not enough of
them yet, they are not spread across the large territories, and their
financial resources are limited. Though today these organizations play a
rather modest role, their appearance is an important factor in women’s
participation in social and economic life of the state. The majority of
the leaders of the women’s NGOs were trained in strengthening their
organizations during the training courses organized with the help of the
foreign funds. The main sphere of the activity of the women’s NGOs is
protection of the socially vulnerable layers of the population, support
to the women-entrepreneurs, promotion of women’s problems in the
society through mass media, and organization of conferences. Today
women’s organizations have become an active part of the civil society.
They have begun preparatory activities for forming a coalition of
women’s organizations. The Gender in Development Bureau has started
its activity .
Gender in Development Bureau
reflected in the previous opinions, much research has marked the
positive role of the Gender
in Development Bureau in
Kazakhstan. This UNDP project has been developed on the basis of the
Copenhagen Declaration (1990), and pursuant to the solutions of the
Beijing World Women's Conference (1995). Its purpose is to attract
attention of the public and mobilize the political will and resources to
change both the status and the living standard of women and their
The UN development programs is guided by the following principles in its
Gender equality should be included in the framework of the joint
activity with governments and other strategic and political documents;
The equal participation of men and women should be reached with
the help of priorities during the development, implementation, and
monitoring of the programs.
Programs implementation benefits should be equally distributed.
There should be gender equality at all decision-making levels.
This policy is implemented by the UN system through its special employees, coordinators on gender issues (Gender Focal Points), and the network of the Gender in Development Bureaus. Using a general methodology developed at the UN headquarters, Kazakhstan and other CIS countries have developed their own, effective programs to respond to challenges each country faces.
of the wide experience of the UN in the field of dealing with women’s
issues, the ready formulaic solutions do not exist. So far the UN
reports still have to state that not a single country in the world has
actually achieved equal rights in the position of women and men. Though
the situation in the Scandinavian countries is more or less close to the
ideal that UN has recommended for the world. Therefore, the Gender in
Development Bureau in Kazakhstan has established a good partnership with
the women’s organizations of Sweden and successfully works on
implementation of a number of joint projects.
We have made great progress in the last four years. When we opened the
Bureau in 1996, the situation in the country was as follows. Kazakhstan,
after having gained its independence in 1991, proclaimed its adherence
to the democratic norms of the state construction. This was as it should
have been because it was necessary to develop a civil society.
1996 according to the official reports, only around 30 women’s NGOs
could be counted. As its national mechanism, it was decided to place the
Council on Family, Women and Demographic Policy under the President. The
Council had consultative/deliberative functions, without possessing any
executive authority. Naturally, its activity was practically
imperceptible in the society, except for separate official reports in
newspapers about their regular meetings. The Council worked out annual
national reports on the position of women in Kazakhstan for the
President of the RK to which the public did not have any access.
Besides, it developed and ratified by the Decree of the President the
Concept of the State Policy on Improving the Position of Women. It
conducted some regular meetings, where the circle of the invited
participants was practically constant and consisted of the members of
the Council and the Republican Women’s Council (successor of soviet
“zhensovet”). The National Platform for Actions on implementation of
the Beijing Conference Resolution had been drafted but had not been
approved by the Government. Till 1998, not a single international
convention in the field of women’s rights had been ratified.
29 June 1998, however, Kazakhstan joined the UN Convention on
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). In
December 1998, in order to implement the Convention, and to strengthen
the mechanisms for women, the Council was reformed into the National
Commission on Family and Women Affairs under the President. The
President defined four main priorities for the National Commission: 1)
promotion of women and family health, 2) active participation of women
in the public and political life of the country and their advancement
into the decision-making level, 3) economic empowerment of women, and 4)
eradication of violence against women.
The National Action Plan on Improving the Status of Women in the
Republic of Kazakhstan was developed within the framework of the
long-term strategy Kazakhstan-2030. The Plan was endorsed by the decree
of the Government. So, we now have a comprehensive action program for
women of our country that ensures the implementation of the decisions of
the Beijing conference.
the women’s role in society will lead to solution of women’s
problems in all priority areas indicated in the Beijing Platform for
Actions. Therefore, one of the basic directions in the activity of the
Bureau has become the training of women under the program "Strategy
of a women's political leadership in the democratic society". For
Kazakhstan this direction is very important because there are a few
women occupy management positions. For example, 12% of the members of
the Parliament are women, and
only one woman is a minister, the Chairman of the recently formed
National Commission on Family and Women Affairs. In local governmental
bodies, the percent of women’s participation is a little bit higher,
but nowhere does it exceed 20%. Actually, a traditional gender pyramid
has developed – the higher the level of authority, the fewer women you
can find there.
the early 1997 to the end of 1999 in various regions of the country, the
Bureau worked with the Association of Business Women of Kazakhstan and
donor agencies (SIDA, USIA, Konrad Adenayer Foundation, the British Know
How Foundation) to conduct a score of training programs on women's
political leadership. Teachers from the USA, Great Britain, Kyrgyzstan,
and Kazakhstan shared their knowledge with women in the field about the
political struggle for their rights, for equal participation in the
society, for positions in power. About 200 women - representatives of
all regions of the country - participated in these seminars and training
programs. In summer of 1997, the Summer Women’s Camp was conducted
under the title Kazakhstan-97, where simultaneously 50 women from all
regions of the country studied. Besides, the Bureau supported a number
of women’s meetings in the regions of the Republic where they
discussed themes devoted to the role of international organizations in
the solution of women’s problems, women’s leadership, legislative
measures for protecting women’s rights, the growth and development of
the women’s NGOs, and the similar issues.
this enough for a country as large as Kazakhstan? There have been many
disputes and doubts. The questions were asked about whether these
short-term studies were necessary or not, if there would be any results,
and how they could be evaluated? Also, people wondered what influence
they would have on the ratio of women and men occupying the highest
official positions. Now we are sure: they are necessary. Due to these
seminars and training programs, women from the remote regions of the
country, who are well educated and active by nature, but who lived an
informational vacuum, felt their own strength for the first time.
Different branches of the Association of the Business Women of
Kazakhstan started to be established one after another. Their number
grew from 6 in 1997 to 23 in 1999. New women’s NGOs have started to
appear. Recently while compiling the list of women’s organizations in
the Republic, we were surprised to find that their number has increased
to almost a 100. Even more often, we heard the women’s voices about
the necessity of creation of a women’s political party.
active were the women’s NGOs in 1998-1999 before the presidential
elections and the elections for the members to the local representative
bodies of the Government and Parliament. Within a short period of time,
the women’s NGOs in Almaty created a coalition Women’s Electoral
Initiatives. The Coalition has developed a program that included
training for women running for elective offices, working with
government, and working with mass media for creation of real equal
opportunities for women. In August 1999, the first political women’s
party “Political Alliance of Women’s Organizations” was registered
and has been struggling for positions in representative bodies at all
levels of power.
against women is the second priority theme which has received broad
recognition in society due to the efforts of women’s organizations
supported by UNDP/ Bureau Gender and development. In 1997, the Bureau
jointly with the World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a seminar on
Woman and Violence, where the women’s NGOs and representatives of the
state bodies participated. As a result of the seminar, a resolution was
adopted which among other measures called for a public action Public
Awareness Week on Violence Against Women and Children. This action had a
startling effect. The problem of violence, at last, started to be
discussed openly. And it was pleasant to realize that the main purpose
– attraction of the public attention and the attention of the
politicians to this problem - was achieved. In his annual address on
September 30, 1998, to the people of Kazakhstan, the President declared
a struggle with manifestations of violence against women among the
priorities of the State policy. He especially, noted the role of
women’s NGOs and the UNDP in bringing this issue to the nation’s
National Action Plan stipulates establishment of a new, effective system
of combating violence against women, which includes a draft Law on
Domestic Violence, development and implementation of a state reporting
system on issues of violence against women, establishment number of
crisis centers throughout the country, and other measures. A special
division on combating violence against women was established within the
Ministry of Interior. Professional counseling for the population on
issues of violence against women will be developed and introduced into
the curriculum of universities and colleges of law-enforcement bodies.
advancement of women
stated in the Report on the Women’s Status in Kazakhstan, 1997:
of the total Republic of Kazakhstan population women comprise around 7.8
million (or 51.8 %). In 1999 the percentage ratio of women in the total
number of the employed made 46%. Thus, the indexes of women’s
employment now remain rather low. The restructuring of the economy has
resulted in increases of women’s share in the private sector, in small
and medium business, and in non-productive spheres of service. According
to the official data for 1995, 30 % of the total number of people
involved with small businesses are women. But only 2% of the managers of
small and medium businesses are women. The increase of unemployment is
the main reason for poverty. According to official data, women make up
63.2% of the unemployed. Thus, we see the "feminization" of
unemployment and poverty – a well-known fact. The consequence of such
a tendency is a conscious limitation of the birth rate, the worsening of
the health of the population, and an increasing the crime rate. .
we need to be render assistance to women to help them develop small and
medium sized businesses that will improve women’s situation in the
labor market and that will ensure self-employment of women. This will
help to solve the problem of the increasing poverty among the population
1997 the UNDP together with the International Mercy Corps and the United
States’ Agency on International Development (USAID) started a new
project called The Status and Economic Advancement of the Women of
Kazakhstan, which in two pilot regions began to provide micro-credits to
women’s business. And though the provision of micro-credits is a drop
in the ocean of the economic problems the population faces, we hope that
this will become the way to enlarge credits and big business.
1998-1999, the Gender in Development Bureau joined its Swedish partner,
Springboard Management Consulting, which has received the financial
support from the Swedish Agency on International Development (SIDA) to
execute a project on creation of the women’s network. This network
will unite all the women’s NGOs working in the field of women’s
employment and business. For this purpose, new computers were installed
in all branches of the Association of the Business Women of Kazakhstan.
August 1999, the Women’s Fair for Trade and Ideas in Almaty was held.
In Kazakh language it was called Kanatty Ayel, which means Woman on the
Wing. Over two 2,000 women entrepreneurs from all regions of the country
took part in the Fair. It
provided a way of attracting the attention of men to the dialogue. In
Sweden, such event is held every two years, and hundred thousand people
have visited these fairs. In Kazakhstan, the Fair has attracted more
then ten thousands visitors, including high government officials,
representatives of other Central Asian republics, and guests from the
USA, Sweden and Germany. The
fair is not only an exhibition for selling items produced by women, but
it also provides seminars, conferences, round table talks, and meetings
with politicians of all ranks. The focus highlights the issues of
women’s entrepreneurship so society takes notice of them. The success
of the “Kanatty Ayel” helped women to find one more solution to
women’s economic problems. One thing is clear: women do not want to
struggle against problems alone any more. The women’s network will
help them to feel the support of a friends or partners in business.
The National Action Plan envisages improvement of women’s economic,
legal, and professional literacy. Unemployed women will continue to
train on market economy skills, and training centers on labor skills
will be opened. It also envisages simplifying the credit mechanisms and
establishing a special division within the Temir-Bank crediting projects
of women entrepreneurs.
gender studies were poorly developed in Kazakhstan, and because there
was an insufficient quantity of literature, both domestic and foreign,
the amount of gender research in Kazakhstan has been limited to methods
in developed countries. The position of women, and the condition of
gender relations in the society are mainly evaluated with statistical
data and standard analytical methods used by the state bodies.
Scientific sociological societies and research institutes use in their
work qualitative and quantitative methods of researches based on
sociological inquiries. However, solely using these statistical and
sociological methods of analysis is obviously insufficient because of
many examples of hidden discrimination against women remain beyond the
scope of such methods of research. When working out the annual human
development reports executed by the UNDP system, it became clear that
gender indicators are not used for the evaluation of a human development
index in Kazakhstan
report prepared by a group of experts by the order of the UNDP states
the following conclusion:
limited resources and the absence of the necessary information about
women are obstacles to the development of research on the women’s
problems and cause them to have a rather academic, abstract character.
Gender research should be the basis for evaluating the influence of
reforms on the women’s position and should serve as a source of the
proposals on adjusting the carried out reform .
same group of experts made a comparative analysis of the techniques of a
statistical analysis recommended by the European Union and the
techniques used in Kazakhstan. According to this analysis,
recommendations were given for improving the collection of the
statistical data and data analysis in Kazakhstan. The UNDP is going to
conduct further work in this direction.
begin to solve women’s problems, an expert of the Kazakhstan
Development Institute Dr. Gulnara Ahmedzhanova worked out the following
recommendations to the country’s politicians:
should develop scientific understanding of a women’s issues in
should implement and encourage gender research investigating the
problems of women’s socialization and how they adapt to the changing
conditions of the social – economic development.
should conduct regular events and campaigns for general population on
should popularize women’s concerns through the mass media and by
making special courses on gender issues an obligatory part of the
should adopt, at the state level, special acts that increase the status
of women. These acts providing the economic incentives and privileges,
should increase the interest of employers in hiring the citizens who
have family responsibilities.
should create a network of psychological and rehabilitation services for
the women requiring such a help.
should create the infrastructure that allows for self-realization of
women by providing pre-school establishments, a network of consumer
services, and other services that give women a chance to work
effectively for a full working day.
should create mechanisms that provide soft credits for women’s
should establish a women’s movement in Kazakhstan that defends not
only the social but the political rights of women. .
Women and women’s organizations were given much optimism and inspired
by the famous speech of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan,
Nursultan Nazarbaev, on September 30, 1999, when he indicated in his
annual address to the people of Kazakhstan the high priority in the
State policy of women’s issues. On the Second Forum for the Women of
Kazakhstan, the President confirmed his commitment to these issues. The
establishment of the National Commission on the Family and Women’s
Affairs inspires hope for a real increase of the woman’s status in the
Thus, the activity of women’s organizations, the UNDP, and other international organizations in Kazakhstan has not gone unnoticed. This confirms the effectiveness of the selected strategies and tactics of the women’s movement activists. The main goal has been achieved: we have attracted the attention of the important statesmen and the public to women’s problems. During a short period of time, the National Action Plan on Increasing the Status of Women was developed and has been approved by the Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Three UN women’s rights conventions were adopted in 1998-1999 by the Parliament of Kazakhstan: the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), the Convention on Political Rights of Women, and the Convention on Nationality of Married Women. In compliance with these directives, the next objective is to make these abstract plans work on a practical level for a wide range of the populace.
Report on the Women’s Status. The Republic of Kazakhstan, 1997”.
Bahytzhamal Bekturganova “Sociology
of Women: Kazakhstan, 1995-1998.”, Almaty, 1998 (manuscript).
Alma Abikenova “Perspectives of Gender Researches Development in Kazakhstan”
Maira Amirhanova, Rosa Dzhalimbetovna
“The Report on the Contemporary Status of the Gender Statistics”,
UNDP, Almaty, 1998.
Gulnara Ahmedzhanova “The
National Report on the Effect of the Process of Restructuring and Gender
Relations”, (a survey for the UN Sub-regional Conference on
Poverty, Almaty, 1998).
National Report on Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action on
Improving the Status of Women,
— Heroes of historical battles of the Kazak tribes with
conquerors who came mainly from the territory of
modern China (the so-called Dzhungar tribes, which by now disappeared from
the Earth); Barymta —
Attacks of the Kazak tribes hostile to each other against each other
with the purpose of stealing cattle.