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Istileulova Yelena, IPF Fellow 2003 Gender Inequalities at the level of SMEs in Kazakhstan Final Report (September, 2003 to March, 2004) 1. Monthly activities. Participation in the following conferences, workshops, events and seminars. Attended and participated in the following events directly related to the topic of my research: • September, 2003 – conducted the preliminary work for organization of a Gender panel from Kazakhstan (Panel consists of 6 participants) for the Annual Conference of the Central Eurasian Studies Society in Harvard University to be held on October, 2003. As a Organizer of Gender Panel I conducted the preliminary work with the participants of Gender panel and submitted all abstracts to the Organizing Committee of CESS Conference and got an official invitation to the Harvard University as a Head of Gender Panel from Kazakhstan to present a paper at the Annual Conference in Harvard University, Boston CESS (Conference’s dates: October 2-5, 2003). Paper’s title: “Gender Trends in the Labor Market of Kazakhstan” (jointly with the Center for Gender Studies) • September, 10-15 – Pilot survey was conducted on the exhibition of small entrepreneurs and at the market place of the city of Almaty. The survey was conducted for the group of the small entrepreneurs (pictures are made and attached here). • September, 15-30: Next stage of the survey was conducted at the Almaty City Business-incubator and it has been agreed with the Almaty City Akimat’s Department of Small Business and the Director of the Almaty City’s Business incubators. (ANNEX 3) Survey was conducted on the different groups of entrepreneurs. (Example pictures- ANNEX 2) • October 2-6, 2003 the 4th Annual Conference of the Central Eurasian Studies Society, scheduled, at Harvard University, in Cambridge, MA /Organisation of the Gender Panel from Kazakhstan, invited to present a paper “Gender Trends in the Labor Market of Kazakhstan” (I also presented a preliminary results of the pilot survey) (confirmation number P0090) c/o Harvard Program on Central Asia and the Caucasus, David Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies, 625 Massachusetts Avenue , Cambridge, MA 02139, USA • October 20-24, 2003 Training Workshop on Policy Analysis – ECO/FAO – was invited in the capacity of Lecturer on economic issues in policy analysis, Almaty • October 25- December, 25 – Taraz City – Survey is conducted at the governmental sector on the employees of Kazakhenergyexpertise (South of Kazakhstan). The same Questionnaire is used to compare the results in the private and government sectors. • December, 10th, 2003 Participated in the Videoconference “Implementing Gender Equality Legislation in Central Asia”. The World Bank, in collaboration with UNDP’s regional bureau for Europe and the CIS, Almaty, Kazakhstan World Bank Office • January, 2004 – March, 2004. Participated in the VideoConference in all countries of Central Asia on at the WorldBank (7 weeks). Certificate of attendance • 14th of February, 2004 Almaty City Akimat and Forum of entrepreneurs in Kazakhstan, “Development of entrepreneurs’ climate in Kazakhstan” , Almaty City Akimat 28th – 30th of April, 2003/ Doing the survey among the entrepreneurs from small business • March, 1st to 12th, 2004 Regional Training Course on “Agricultural Policy Analysis: Tools and Issues”, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan/ Presented the part of the course related to the economic and policy analysis for FAO project • March 20 – March 30, 2004 Training course at CEU/Open Society Institute • From April, 2004 and afterwards– summarizing the results and preparing the final Report and Policy Paper 2. Literature review on gender aspects in labor markets (in small businesses). A wide variety of sources related to Gender issues in the Labor markets have been observed: Books Journals (local, national and international) Reports of ILO, UNIFEM, UNDP, WB, ADB, etc. Popular media ( the daily and weekly newspapers, magazines, journals) Web-sites (provided by OSI, found by search and presented by other sources) Instruction manuals Primary sources Secondary sources periodicals, Internal Reports (example, Confederation of Trade Unions) 3. Discussions with Mentors – meetings with the local Mentor, Muhamedjanova Larisa take place on a regular basis in the connection with the ongoing Survey and the planning Presentation at Harvard University. She helped preparing the comments on the first draft of the Questionnaire. The other mentor Elena Mezentseva provided me with the sample surveys prepared by the different groups of social survey’s companies from Russia. She also helped to prepare a detailed final draft of the version for the pilot survey. After the pilot survey was completed on a recommended final version of Questionnare, the Questionnaire was a bit amended, and the final version of it is attached in the Annex 1 here. 4. Meetings with the related stakeholders. In the connection with the final stage, there were the meetings organized with the City department of Small Business of the City Akimat, the City Incubator of Small businesses, the Center of Gender studies, the Center of Gender and Social research (under GenPI – former Women’s Pedagogical Institute), the UN Gender Bureau, ILO office in Almaty, Gender Department of the National Agency of Statistics and the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection. 5. Process of interviewing. The sample final version of Questionnaire for the survey conducted during 2003-2004 year is attached here in ANNEX 1 (page 3 to page 6). Some illustrations (pictures) of the process of survey are attached in ANNEX 2 (page 7) (among the small entrepreneurs) and on the exhibition “Atakent” (when small entrepreneurs came over from different parts of Kazakhstan). The pictures of the next stage of this survey that was conducted among the City incubators are attached in ANNEX 3 (page 8). ANNEX 1 Sample Questionnaire (originally presented in Russian language)ANNEXES 2 and 3 are attached below
Dear respondents!The fellow of the Open Society Institute (Hungary) conducts this survey dedicated to the general estimation of gender inequality problem (inequality between men and women) in the labor market of Kazakhstan. We would appreciate a lot if you can fill in this Questionnaire and make your contribution into development of this direction. Your answers will be used for analysis of the gender inequalities on the labor market of Kazakhstan and be presented in general summarized form on the site www.policy.hu. QUESTIONNAIRE ON ECONOMIC INEQUALITIES IN THE PRIVATE AND GOVERNMENTAL SECTORS Please, mark by “v” the correspondent version of your answer or put your comments in the written form Do men and women have the equal opportunities in Kazakhstan’s labor market? • yes • no • not always • I do not know Whether you or your relatives became the witnesses of the gender inequalities in labor relations? • yes • no • I do not know In your opinion, how are the inequalities in labor relations can be expressed in terms of gender: • Different salary’s level is suggested under the employment to the same position for men and women • Men and women have the different opportunities under the career’s promotion • In different opportunities to improve the professional level (access to the professional re-training program, in the educational opportunities and participation in training programs, etc) • In the working conditions • In additional working load not connected with the direct duties • In the possible sexual harassment • Other things _______________________________________________________________________ Your job 1. Your work collective: • Mainly women’s dominated • Mainly men’s dominated • Mixed 2. In which group you are more comfortable to work: • Predominantly in woman’s environment Ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â æåíñêîì • Predominantly in men’s environment • Doesn’t matter 3. Do you think that the best Manager is: • A man • A woman • Doesn’t matter 4. Increase of wage in your job take place more for • Man • Women • Doesn’t matter 5. Under the employment opportunities the best chances in your job have • Men • Women • Doesn’t matter 6. Which qualities do you have that are appreciated in your work? • Technical skills (please, put some examples)_______________________________________ • Ability to professionally negotiate with people • Education that is necessary in this field • Useful connections • Other (please, clarify)___________________________________________________ 7. Your salary level • Less than $150 • From $151 to 300 • From $301 to 500 • From $500 to 1000 • Higher than $1000 8. How would you estimate your financial conditions for you family? • Income less than $50 US dollars per each member of your family • Income from $51 to $100 US dollars per each member of your family • Income from $101 to 150 US dollars per each member • Income from $151 to 200 US dollars per each member • Income from $201 to 300 per each member of your family • Income from $301 to $500 US dollars per each member • Income from $501 to $1000 US dollars per each member • Income higher than $1000 US dollars per each member 9. If you work on a full-time basis, how many hours do you spend in your work place during a day in average? • Less than 4- hours • From 4 to 6 hours • 8 hours • From 8 to 10 hours • From 10 to 12 hours • More than 12 hours 10. If you are a currently employed person, would you like to start your own business some time in the future? • yes • no • do not know 11. If yes, what are the barriers? • No money • No access to the credit funds • I am afraid responsibilities • Racket • Taxes • Other things ____________________________________________ 12. Do you have an additional job (on a paid basis) ? • Yes • No • From time to time 13. Would you like to get an additional job? • Yes • No, one is enough • I have an additional job • I have two additional jobs 14. Do you have any trade union or any organisation that is responsible for protection of your rights as an employee ? • Yes • No • do not know 15. Would you like to have a trade union or any other organization that would protect your labor rights? • Yes • No • I do not know 16. What do you lack on your work to fell yourself more comfortable? • Promotion in career • Improvement of working conditions • Opportunities to show my individuality • Other __________________ 17. What do you lack to open your own business? • Desire • Education • Useful connections • Money • Knowledge of legislation • Other __________________________________ 18. How would you spend your free time during the weekends? • There is so much work, so I work during weekends • Family’s responsibilities take all my free time • I spend it by watching TV • Active entertainment (restaurants, disco, parties, etc) • Go to the nature • Sport • Reading books • Looking after children • Other _________________________________ 19. Do you have the opportunities to go to the vacations during a year? • yes • yes, but at my own account • yes, but I am not asked whether I can do it at this time or whether I want it • no • Other ___________________________________________ 20. How would you spend your vacation time? • There is no vacations because of the intense working load • I spend it at home • Go abroad • Go to the nature • I do repairing work and other things at home • Other ___________________________ Social-demographic parameters of the respondent: 1. your gender: • man • woman 2. Age: ________ (please, put) 3. Nationality : _____________ (Please, put) 4. Family status: • married • have never been married • divorced • I am in civil marriage • Widow/widower 5. Members of family: ____________ people (Please, put it in) 6. Education: • Average • Special average • Not completed higher • Higher • Two higher education • More than two higher educations 7. Form of the property of your enterprise: • State • Private • Mixed • I do not now 8. Your social status: • Owner of enterprise , • Hired Manager of enterprise • Co-owner( shareholder) • Employee • Other _______________ 9. Was it interesting to participate in this survey? • yes • no 10. Would you like to add something or make comments on this topic of research? ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Many thanks for your time and your input that help us to assess the situation on gender inequalities!